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First the ‘reciprocity principle’ must apply between the country of the person wishing to obtain acquisition of ownership. In other words, if a Turkish citizen can become the owner of real estate in the UK, then the same right applies to a UK citizen in Turkey.
Mainly there are no legal restrictions against foreigner nationals regarding the acquisition of property ownership. However, the Village Act and the Military Prohibited and Security Areas play an important role; Article 87 of the Village Act denies the right to foreigners to ownership of property that is outside the centre of a village in case the cadastral division of this area had not been arranged yet or it may belong to the Ministry of Forest. Also, the act regarding Military Prohibited and Security Areas can be an impediment and therefore restrict the acquisition of property by foreigner nationals if the property is located within a particular distance of military sites or strategically important areas.
a. Freehold property of land may be purchased by most foreign nationals, from a Turkish national or another foreigner, provided the property is in the local district "Belediye".
b. If property or land is outside the Belediye long leases can be arranged. The lease can subsequently be transferred to a third party if he/she wishes without restriction.
Yes, with some purchases from developers all costs (excluding lawyer’s fees) are included, but with individual properties and some small developers only the purchase price is shown. This is always made clear on promotion material. The extra charges involved for a freehold or leasehold purchase payable by the purchaser amount to approximately 8% of the purchase price paid. These are broken down as follows:
Property tax, paid annually at a fixed percent of the declared value, (on a new home a 25% reduction is given until the revaluation conducted after the first five years).
Building insurance is compulsory for leases arranged through Yapi Kredi, the premium is approximately 2 per mil. It is also mandatory to purchase State earthquake insurance.
Gas is normally used for cooking and can also be used for water heating. Cylinder refills cost approximately £10.00 and lasts approximately a month for water heating and two months for cooking (a deposit is taken for each gas cylinder).
Electricity is cheap approximately £0.05p a kilowatt. Bills are payable monthly at a local bank or directly at the Turkish Electricity Board.
Water costs approximately £0.40p per ton (1,000 litres on mains supply) or £3.00 per ton when bought from a bulk tanker.
Site maintenance, groups of houses, particularly developments will form a management service, committee or company, to maintain common facilities, common gardens, repainting, etc. The cost of this will vary from development to development, but generally starts at around £150.00 per annum. Their conduct is governed by Turkish law.
Capital gains made from the sale of a property will be taxable in Turkey if the owner is a Company. Individuals do not have to pay capital gains, provided they have owned the property for one year. In the UK capital gains may be taxable depending on the individuals situation.
Current tax conditions were originally agreed in a double taxation treaty signed in 1986. These were amended in October 1988 and cover the reciprocal agreement relation to income tax and corporation tax in Turkey and income, corporation and capital gains taxes in the UK.
This also includes a non discrimination clause "Nationals of a contracting state shall not be subjected in the other contracting state to any taxation or requirement connected therewith which is other or more burdensome than the taxation and connected requirements to which nationals of that other state in the same circumstances are or maybe subjected". (Article 24).
However, it is recommended that you consult an accountant because each individual's circumstances are different.
Rental income is liable for tax assessment in either the UK or Turkey and will be payable depending on the personal situation.
Freehold resale costs are between 5% (comprising sales tax, local documentation and legal fees).
Property may be sold to Turkish, or foreign nationals without restriction. Because of the change in law (Decree 32 August 1989) the lira is now convertible so proceeds of the sale of a property can be converted to whatever currency and subsequently transferred to any country you choose.
If the property is subject to a Yapi Kredi lease then the transfer costs are just over 1%.
Furniture is generally cheap, and can be custom made by local craftsmen if required. It is possible to buy in most towns at very competitive rates, with a wide range of goods. Electrical items are less expensive than in England.
Towels and linen are cheaper than Europe; however, household goods are extremely cheap and can be purchased at the local markets. Non-national residents can import household goods providing they hold a suitable residency permit.
Telephones are either bought on the black market at up to £400 or your name is put on a waiting list where you can wait for anything from a week to three years, depending on availability in your area.
There is a small standing charge payable annually approximately £12.00. Lines are generally good and Internet access easy and well serviced. There is a national daily newspaper printed in English, the Turkish Daily News.
A short-wave radio is useful to pick up the BBC World service. Television reception is good and if you buy Digiturk Satellite system you receive 52 channels including MGM, Movie Max 1&2, BBC Prime, Discovery Channel, Euro sport, CNN world news, etc.
There are large European communities living in Turkey full time, plus many transitory people living on boats in the harbours for months at a time.
During the winter months there are many social occasions arranged such as book swaps, walks, BBQ's, card evenings and inland trips.
If you wish to apply for a resident permit in Turkey, you should apply to The Police Headquarters, Aliens Department in the province where you reside. First time applicants may be granted up to two years resident permit. Thereafter, it may be renewed for five years. Resident permit applications will be processed and issued in one day.
A man or a woman married to a Turkish citizen will be issued with a resident permit valid for three years on first application. Thereafter it may be renewed for up to five years.
If a working visa has been obtained from the Turkish Embassy abroad, on first application in Turkey a two-year resident permit will be issued. Thereafter three and five year resident permits may be issued.
Pending Applications: If you wish to leave the country and your application has not been resolved the Aliens Department will endorse your resident permit on one occasion only, giving right of residency for 15 days. Production of this endorsement upon departure from Turkey to immigration police should avoid a fine being levied.
There are numerous insurance companies offering comprehensive annual cover. We advise clients to insure their properties and can recommend good companies for buildings, contents and medical insurance. Earthquake insurance is mandatory in Turkey.
Mortgage companies do not generally exist in Turkey as most property purchases are cash transactions. You should therefore arrange your finance in your home country.
If you are visiting Turkey as a tourist with your vehicle, you should have full documents and insurance for your vehicle. Details of your car will be registered in your passport on your arrival at the border. A foreign plated vehicle is permitted to remain in Turkey for a of maximum six months in any 12 month period.